Flow Diagram for Acute and Chronic Pain Assessment in Dogs

Figure 2

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Flow Diagram Outlining Acute and Chronic Pain Assessment in Dogs. This flow diagram outlines a basic approach to the assessment of pain in dogs. For assessment of both acute and chronic pain, the core elements are physical examination/palpation and the use of Clinical Metrology Instruments (CMIs) (see Table 2). CMIs that are specific for particular circumstances (e.g., for specific types of surgery or for specific chronic diseases) are being developed, tested, and validated. At the moment, for chronic pain, all the CMIs to assess the impact of pain have been developed for osteoarthritis, although these have been applied to other “limb pain” conditions, such as osteosarcoma. Importantly, this flow diagram illustrates two important points: (1) involvement of the owner and (2) follow-up and reassessment.