References

  1. Barges J, Boynton B, Vogt AH, et al. 2012 AAHA Canine Life Stage Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2012;48(1):1–11.
  2. Bishop G, Cooney K, Cox S, et al. 2016 AAHA/IAAHPC End-of-Life Care Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2016;52(6)L341–56.
  3. Luescher AU. Canine behavior development. In: Peterson ME, Kutzler MA, eds. Small Animal Pediatrics. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:97– 103.
  4. Greer KA, Canterberry SC, Murphy KE. Statistical analysis regarding the effects of height and weight on life span of the domestic dog. Res Vet Sci 2007;82(2):208–14.
  5. Epstein M, Kuehn NF, Landsberg G, et al. AAHA Senior Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005;41(2):81–91.
  6. Adams VJ, Evans, KM, et al. Methods and mortality results of a health survey of purebred dogs in the UK. J Small Anim Pract 2010;51(10): 512–24
  7. Lloyd JKF. Minimizing stress for patients in the veterinary hospital: Why it is important and what can be done about it. Vet Sci 2017;4(2)22.
  8. Herron ME, Shreyer T. The pet-friendly veterinary practice: A guide for practitioners. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014:44(3):451–81.
  9. Yin S. Low Stress Handling, Restraint and Behavior Modification of Dogs and Cats. Davis (CA): Cattledog Publishing; 2009.
  10. Siracusa C, Manteca X, Cuenca R, et al. Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress response in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237(6): 673–81.
  11. Coe JB, Adams CL, Bonnet BN. A focus group study of veterinarians’ and pet owners’ perceptions of veterinarian-client communication in companion animal practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233(7):1072–80.
  12. Dysart LMA, Coe JB, Adams CL. Analysis of solicitation of client concerns in companion animal practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011: 238(12):1609–15.
  13. Kanji N, Coe JB, Adams CL, et al. Effect of veterinarian-client-patient interactions on client adherence to dentistry and surgery recommendations in companion-animal practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012:240(4): 427–36.
  14. Shaw JR, Adams CL, Bonnet BN, et al. Veterinarian satisfaction with companion animal visits. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012:240(7):832–41.
  15. Cachon T, Frykman O, Innes JF, et al. Face validity of a proposed tool for staging canine osteoarthritis: Canine OsteoArthritis Staging Tool (COAST). Vet J 2018:235:1–8.
  16. Willems A, Paepe D, Marynissen S, et al. Results of screening of apparently healthy senior and geriatric dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2017:31(1): 81–92.
  17. American Veterinary Medical Association. Wellness Guidelines for Animals in Animal-Assisted Activity, Animal-Assisted Therapy and Resident Animal Programs. Available at: https://ebusiness.avma.org/files/productdownloads/wellness_AAA.pdf. Accessed November 11, 2018.
  18. American Animal Hospital Association. Ear cropping/tail docking. Available at: https://www.aaha.org/professional/resources/ear_cropping_tail_docking.aspx. Accessed January 14, 2019.
  19. American Veterinary Medical Association. Wolf and wolf-dog crosses not eligible to be added to dog vaccine labels. Available at: https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/s060101pp.aspx. Accessed January 14, 2019.
  20. American Veterinary Medical Association. Animal Abuse Response – Resources for Veterinarians. Available at: https://www.avma.org/ kb/resources/reference/animalwelfare/pages/animal-abuse-resources-for-veterinarians.aspx. Accessed on November 11, 2018.
  21. American Animal Hospital Association. Animal Identification and Microchipping Position Statement. Available at: https://www.aaha.org/ professional/resources/animal_identification.aspx. Accessed on November 11, 2018.
  22. Lord LK, Ingwersen W, Gray JL, et al. Characterization of animals with microchips entering animal shelters. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235(2): 160–7.
  23. Lord LK, Wittum TE, Ferketich AK, et al. Search and identification methods that owners use to find a lost dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 230(2):211–6.
  24. Harris GL, Brodbelt D, Church D, et al. Epidemiology, clinical management, and outcomes of dogs involved in road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom (2009-2014). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2018;28(2):140–8.
  25. Burkitt JM, Sturges BK, Jandrey KE, et al. Risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with tetanus: 38 cases (1987-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230(1):76–83.
  26. Brisson BA, Wainberg SH, Malek S, et al. Risk factors and prognostic indicators for surgical outcome of dogs with esophageal foreign body obstructions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2018;252(3):301–8.
  27. Fleming JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DE. Mortality in North American dogs from 1984 to 2004: an investigation into age-, size-, and breedrelated causes of death. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25(2):187–98.
  28. Rosado B, Gonzalez-Martinez A, Pesini P, et al. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on spontaneous activity in pet dogs - Part 1: Locomotor and exploratory behavior. Vet J 2012;194(2):189–95.
  29. Little SE, Beall MJ, Bowman DD, et al. Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010-2012. Parasit Vectors 2014;7:257.
  30. Stull JW, Bjorvik E, Bub J, et al. 2018 AAHA Infection Control, Prevention, and Biosecurity Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018;54(1): 1–30.
  31. Hubbard K, Wang M, Smith DR. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in Mississippi shelter dogs. Prev Vet Med 2018;159:82–6.
  32. Johnson CA, Carter TD, Dunn JR, et al. Investigation and characterization of Brucella canis infections in pet-quality dogs and associated human exposures during a 2007-2016 outbreak in Michigan. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2018;253(3):322–36.
  33. Dvorak G, Roth JA, Gray GC, et al. Zoonotic Diseases: Protecting People and Their Pets. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press; 2013.
  34. Day MJ. Pet-related infections. Am Fam Physician 2016;94(10):794–802.
  35. Companion Animal Parasite Council. 2018. Available at: www.capcvet. org. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  36. Little SE, Johnson EM, Lewis D, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet dogs in the United States. Vet Parasitol 2009;166(1–2):144–52.
  37. Berrett AN, Erickson LD, Gale SD, et al. Toxocara seroprevalence and associated risk factors in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017; 97(6):1846–50.
  38. Woodhall DM, Eberhard ML, Parise ME. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxocariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014;90(5):810–3.
  39. van Bree FPJ, Bokken GCAM, Mineur R, et al. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs. Vet Rec 2018; 182(2):50.
  40. American Animal Hospital Association. Raw protein diet. Available at: https://www.aaha.org/professional/resources/raw_protein_diet.aspx. Accessed January 14, 2019.
  41. Wilsson E. Nature and nurture – How different conditions affect the behavior of dogs. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2016;16:45–52.
  42.  Jokinen O, Appleby D, Sandbacka-Saxen S, et al. Homing age influences the prevalence of aggressive and avoidance-related behavior in adult dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2017;195:87–92.
  43. Roshier AL, McBride EA. Canine behavior problems: discussions between veterinarians and dog owners during annual booster consultations. Vet Rec 2013;172(9):235.
  44. Hammerle M, Horst C, Levine E, et al. 2015 AAHA Canine and Feline Behavior Management Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2015;51(4): 205–21.
  45. Battaglia CL. Period of early development and the effects of stimulation and social experiences in the canine. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2009;4: 203–10.
  46. Vaterlaws-Whiteside H, Hartmann A. Improving puppy behavior using a new standardized socialization program. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2017; 197:55–61.
  47. Cutler JH, Coe JB, Niel L. Puppy socialization practices of a sample of dog owners from across Canada and the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017; 251(12):1415–23.
  48. Foyer P, Bjallerhag N,Wilsson E, et al. Behavior and experiences of dogs during the first year of life predict the outcome in a later temperament test. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2014;155:93–100.
  49. Tiira K, Lohi H. Early life experiences an.d exercise associate with canine anxieties. PLoS One 2015;10(11):1–16.
  50. Godbout M, Palestrini C, Beauchamp G, Frank D, Puppy behavior at the veterinary clinic: A pilot study. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2007; 2:26–135.
  51. Strickler B. Helping pet owners change pet behaviors: An overview of the science. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48(3):419–31.
  52. Todd Z. Barriers to the adoption of humane dog training methods. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2018; 25:28–34.
  53. Ziv G. The effects of using aversive training methods in dogs: A review. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2017;19:50–60.
  54. Dreschel NA. The Effects of Fear and Anxiety on Health and Lifespan in Pet Dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2010;125(3–4):157–62.
  55. Rajapaksha E. Special considerations for diagnosing behavior problems in older pets. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48(3):443–56.
  56. Baldwin K, Bartges J, Buffington T, et al. AAHA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010;46(4):285–96.
  57. Freeman L, Becvarova I, Cave N, WSAVA nutritional assessment guidelines. J Small Anim Pract 2011;52(7):385–96.
  58. Rolph NC, Noble PJ, German AJ. How often do primary care veterinarians record the overweight status of dogs? J Nutr Sci 2014;3(e58): 1–5.
  59. Linder D, Mueller M. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44(4):789–806.
  60. Lefebvre SL, Yang M, Wang M, et al. Effect of age at gonadectomy on the probability of dogs becoming overweight. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013; 243(2):236–43.
  61. Association for Pet Obesity Prevention. 2017 pet obesity survey results. Available at: https://petobesityprevention.org/2017. Accessed November 3, 2018.
  62. Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, et al. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220(9): 1315–20.
  63. Larsen JA, Farcas A. Nutrition of aging dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44(4):741–59.
  64. Craig JM. Food intolerance in dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract 2019; 60(2):77–85.
  65. Adolph C, Barnett S, Beall M, et al. Diagnostic strategies to reveal covert infections with intestinal helminths in dogs. Vet Parasitol 2017;247:108– 12.
  66. Villeneuve A, Polley L, Jenkins E, et al. Parasite prevalence in fecal samples from shelter dogs and cats across the Canadian provinces. Parasit Vectors 2015;8:281.
  67. Companion Animal Parasite Council. CAPC General Guidelines. Available at https://capcvet.org/guidelines/general-guidelines/. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  68. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Guidelines for veterinarians: prevention of zoonotic transmission of ascarids and hookworms of dogs and cats. Available at https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/ 5908. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  69. American Heartworm Society. Prevention, diagnosis, and management of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in dogs. https:// www.heartwormsociety.org/veterinary-resources/american-heartwormsociety-guidelines. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  70. Neves D, Lobo L, Simões PB, et al. Frequency of intestinal parasites in pet dogs from an urban area (Greater Oporto, northern Portugal). Vet Parasitol 2014;200(3–4):295–8.
  71. Drake J, Wiseman S. Increasing incidence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in USA with focus on the southeast region 2013-2016. Parasit Vectors 2018;11(1):39.
  72. American Heartworm Society. AHS survey finds increase in heartworm cases. https://www.heartwormsociety.org/veterinary-resources/veterinary-education/ahs-board-speaks-out/368-ahs-survey-finds-increasein-heartworm-cases. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  73. Sonenshine DE. Range expansion of tick disease vectors in North America: Implications for spread of tick-borne disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15(3):E478.
  74. Minigan JN, Hager HA, Peregrine AS, et al. Current and potential future distribution of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis, Say) in North America. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018;9(2):354–62.
  75. Little SE. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and one health in the Americas. Vet Parasitol 2013;195(3–4):249–55.
  76. Littman MP, Gerber B, Goldstein RE, et al. ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2018;32(3):887–903.
  77. Rojas A, Rojas D, Montenegro V, Gutiérrez R, Yasur-Landau D, Baneth G. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of coinfection. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199(3–4):121–8.
  78. Honsberger NA, Six RH, Heinz TJ, et al. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs. Vet Parasitol 2016; 222:67–72.
  79. Taenzler J, Liebenberg J, Roepke RK, et al. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™). Parasit Vectors 2015;8: 305.
  80. Stanneck D, Fourie JJ. Imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collars (Seresto®, Bayer) successfully prevent long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs. Parasitol Res 2013;112(Suppl 1):21–32.
  81. Davoust B, Marié JL, Mercier S, et al. Assay of fipronil efficacy to prevent canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in endemic areas. Vet Parasitol 2003;112(1–2):91–100.
  82. American Animal Hospital Association-American Veterinary Medical Association Preventive Healthcare Guidelines Task Force. Development of new canine and feline preventive healthcare guidelines designed to improve pet health. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47(5):306–11.
  83. Ford RB, Larson LJ, McClure KD, et al. 2017 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2017;53(5):243–51.
  84. Littman MP, Gerber B, Goldstein RE, et al. ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2018;32(3):887– 903.
  85. American Animal Hospital Association. Kennel and boarding safety recommendations. Trends magazine 2017;56–61.
  86. Joffe DJ, Lelewski R, Weese JS, et al. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. Can Vet J 2016;57(1):46–51.
  87. Holstrom SE, Bellows J, Colmery B, et al. AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005;41(1):1–7.
  88. Bellows J, Berg ML, Dennis S, et al. 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2019;55(2):49–69.
  89. Verstraete FJ, Kass PH, Terpak CH. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1998;59(6):686–91.
  90. Harvey C, Shofer F, Laster L. Association of age and body weight with periodontal disease in North American dogs. J Vet Dent 1993;11(3):94– 105
  91. Hennet P, Harvey C. Natural development of periodontal disease in the dog: a review of clinical, anatomical and histological features. J Vet Dent 1992;9(3):13–19.
  92. Harvey CE, Emily PP. Small Animal Dentistry. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book; 1993:89–144.
  93. 93. Grove TK. Periodontal disease. In: Harvey C, ed. Veterinary Dentistry. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1985:59–78.
  94. Veterinary Oral Health Council. VOHC Accepted Products for Dogs. Available at: http://www.vohc.org/VOHCAcceptedProductsTable_Dogs.pdf. Accessed November 26, 2018.
  95. Fleming JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DE. Mortality in North American dogs from 1984 to 2004: An investigation into age-, size-, and breedrelated causes of death. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25(2):187–98.
  96. Greer KA, Canterberry SC, Murphy KE. Statistical analysis regarding the effects of height and weight on life span of the domestic dog. Res Vet Sci 2007;82(2):208–14.
  97. Hoffman JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DEL. Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs. PLoS One 2013;8:e61082.
  98. Kraft W. Geriatrics in canine and feline internal medicine. Eur J Med Res 1998;3(1–2):31–41.
  99. Moore GE, Burkman KD, Carter MN, et al. Causes of death or reasons for euthanasia in military working dogs: 927 cases (1993-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219(2):209–14.
  100. Ufer SR, Wang, M, Yang, M, et al. Risk factors associated with lifespan in pet dogs evaluated in primary care veterinary hospitals. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2019;55(3):130–7.
  101. Forsee KM, Davis GJ, Mouat EE, et al. Evaluation of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: 566 cases (2003-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242(7):959–62.
  102. Payne RM. The effect of spaying on the racing performance of female greyhounds. Vet J 2013;198(2):372–5.
  103. Priester WA. Canine intervertebral disc disease — Occurrence by age, breed, and sex among 8,117 cases. Theriogenology 1976;6:293–303.
  104. Duval JM, Budsberg SC, Flo GL, et al. Breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215(6):811–4.
  105. Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, et al. Canine ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury. Clin Orthop 2004;429:301–5.
  106. van Hagen MAE, Ducro BJ, van den Broek J, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of boxers. Am J Vet Res 2005;66(2):307–12.
  107. Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. Long-term risks and benefits of earlyage gonadectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224(4):380–7.
  108. Simpson M, Albright S, Wolfe B, et al. Age at gonadectomy and risk of overweight/obesity and orthopedic injury in a cohort of Golden Retrievers. PLoS One 2019;14(7): e0209131.
  109. Torres de la Riva G, Hart BL, Farver TB, et al. Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers. PLoS One 2013;8: e55937.
  110. Bryan JN, Keeler MR, Henry CJ, et al. A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Prostate 2007;67(11): 1174–81.
  111. Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, et al. Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers Prev 2002;11(11):1434–40.
  112. Polton GA, Mowat V, Lee HC, et al. Breed, gender and neutering status of British dogs with anal sac gland carcinoma. Vet Comp Oncol 2006; 4(3):125–31.
  113. Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 1998;156(1):31–9.
  114. Teske E, Naan EC, van Dijk EM, et al. Canine prostate carcinoma: Epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002;197(1–2):251–5.
  115. Ware WA, Hopper DL. Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13:95-103.
  116. Zink MC, Farhoody P, Elser SE, et al. Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonadectomized Vizslas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244(3):309–19.
  117. Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DON. Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 1969;43(6):1249–61.
  118. Philibert JC, Snyder PW, Glickman N, et al. Influence of host factors on survival in dogs with malignant mammary gland tumors. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17(1):102–6.
  119. Sorenmo KU, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH. Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14(3):266–70.
  120. Colliard L, Ancel J, Benet JJ, et al. Risk factors for obesity in dogs in France. J Nutr 2006;136(7 Suppl):1951S–4S.
  121. Jeusette I, Daminet S, Nguyen P, et al. Effect of ovariectomy and ad libitum feeding on body composition, thyroid status, ghrelin and leptin plasma concentrations in female dogs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2006; 90(1–2):12–8.
  122. Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, et al. Gonadectomy in immature dogs - effects on skeletal, physical and behavioral-development. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198(7):1193–203.
  123. Lefebvre SL, Yang MY, Wang MS, et al. Effect of age at gonadectomy on the probability of dogs becoming overweight. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013; 243(2):236–43.
  124. Angioletti A, De Francesco I, Vergottini M, et al. Urinary incontinence after spaying in the bitch: Incidence and oestrogen-therapy. Vet Res Commun 2004;28(Suppl 1):153–5.
  125. Thrusfield MV, Holt PE, Muirhead RH. Acquired urinary incontinence in bitches: Its incidence and relationship to neutering practices. J Small Anim Pract 1998;39(12):559–66.
  126. Holt PE, Thrusfield MV. Association in bitches between breed, size, neutering and docking, and acquired urinary-incontinence due to in competence of the uretrhal sphincter mechanism. Vet Rec 1993;133(8): 177–80.
  127. Arnold S, Reicher IM. USMI: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment. Presented at the 48th Annual Congress of The British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Birmingham, United Kingdom, April 7–10, 2005;225–8.
  128. Beauvais W, Cardwell JM, Brodbelt DC. The effect of neutering on the risk of urinary incontinence in bitches - a systematic review. J Small Anim Pract 2012;53(4):198–204.
  129. American Kennel Club, Dog Breeds. Available at: https://www.akc.org/ dog-breeds/. Accessed November 12, 2018.
  130. United Kennel Club, Breed Standards. Available at: https://www.ukcdogs. com/breed-standards. Accessed November 12, 2018.
  131. Ackerman L. Genetic Connection: A Guide to Health Problems in Purebred Dogs. 2nd ed. Lakewood (CO): AAHA Press; 2011.
  132. Zaldivar-Lopez S, Marin LM, Iazbik MC, et al. Clinical pathology of Greyhounds and other sighthounds. Vet Clin Pathol 2011;40(4):414–25.
  133. Clark RD, Steiner JR, eds. Medical and Genetic Aspects of Purebred Dogs. 2nd ed. Fairway (KS): Forum Publications; 1994.
  134. University of Prince Edward Island, Canine Inherited Disorders Database. Available at: http://cidd.discoveryspace.ca/. Accessed November 12, 2018.
  135. Werner P, Haskins ME, Giger U. Comparative and Medical Genetics. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Burlington (MA): Academic Press; 2008.
  136. Breen M. Clinical Genomics. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010: 28–31.
  137. Ostrander E., Lindbald-Toh K, Giger U. The Dog and its Genome. Woodbury (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2006.
  138. Gough A, Thomas A, O’Neill D. Breed Dispositions to Disease in Dogs and Cats. 3rd ed, Oxford (UK): Wiley-Blackwell; 2018.
  139. Fleming JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DE. Mortality in North American Dogs from 1984 to 2004: An Investigation into Age-, Size-, and Breed- Related Causes of Death. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25(2):187–98.
  140. Lewis TW, Wiles BM, Llewellyn-Zaidi AM, et al. Longevity and mortality in Kennel Club registered dog breeds in the UK in 2014. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2018;;5:10.
  141. Marino C, Cober R, Iazbik M, et al. White-coat effect on systemic blood pressure in retired racing Greyhounds. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25(4): 861–5.
  142. Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2018;32(6):1803–22.
  143. AVMA Animal-Assisted Interventions: Guidelines. Available at: https:// www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Animal-Assisted-Interventions- Guidelines.aspx Accessed November 12, 2018.
  144. Otto CM, Downend AB, Serpell JA, et al. Medical and behavioral surveillance of dogs deployed to the World Trade Center and the Pentagon: October 2001-June 2002. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225(6): 861–7.
  145. Jones KE, Dashfield K, Downend AB, et al. Search and rescue dogs: An overview for veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225(6):854–60.
  146. Moore GE, Burkman KD, Carter MN, et al. Causes of death or reasons for euthanasia in military working dogs 927 cases (1993-1996). J AmVet Med Assoc 2001;219:209–14.
  147. Keyserling CL, Buriko Y, Lyons BM, et al. Evaluation of thoracic radiographs as a screening test for dogs and cats admitted to a tertiarycare veterinary hospital for noncardiopulmonary disease. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2017;58(5):503–11.
  148. Bednarski R, Grimm K, Harvey R, et al. AAHA anesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47(6):377–85.
  149. Dell’Osa D, Jaensch S. Prevalence of clinicopathological changes in healthy middle-aged dogs and cats presenting to veterinary practices for routine procedures. Aust Vet J 2016;94(9):317–23.
  150. Davies M. Geriatric screening in first opinion practice - results from 45 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 2012;53(9):507–13.
  151. Webb JA, Kirby GM, Nykamp SG, et al. Ultrasonographic and laboratory screening in clinically normal mature golden retriever dogs. Can Vet J 2012;53(6):626–30.
  152. Mitchell K, Barletta M, Quandt J, et al. Effect of routine pre-anesthetic laboratory screening on pre-operative anesthesia-related decisionmaking in healthy dogs. Can Vet J 2018;59(7):773–8.
  153. Davies M, Kawaguchi S. Pregeneral anaesthetic blood screening of dogs and cats attending a UK practice. Vet Rec 2014;174(20):506.
  154. Alef M, Von Praun F, Oechtering G. Is routine pre-anaesthetic haematological and biochemical screening justified in dogs? Vet Anaesth Anal 2008;35:132–40.
  155. Joubert KE. Pre-anaesthetic screening of geriatric dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2007;78:31–5.
  156. Personal Communication: Prosser KJ, Webb JA, Christoffersen H, et al. An assessment of routine wellness blood testing in companion dogs. Proceedings from the 19th American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Seattle, June 12–15, 2013:68.
  157. Bexfield N. Canine Idiopathic Chronic Hepatitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2017;47(3):645–63.
  158. Webster CRL, Center SA, Cullen JM, et al. ACVIM consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2019;33(3):1173–1200.
  159. Volk JO, Felsted KE, Thomas JG, et al. Executive summary of the Bayer veterinary care usage study. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011:238(10):1275–82.
  160. Frankel RM. Pets, vets and frets:What relationship-centered care research has to offer veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2006;33(1):20–7.
  161. Adams C, Frankel RM. It may be a dog’s life but the relationship with her owners is also key to her health and well being: communication in veterinary medicine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37(1): 1–17.
  162. American Animal Hospital Association. The Path To High-Quality Care: Practical Tips For Improving Compliance. Lakewood (CO): AAHA Press; 2003.
  163. Volk JO, Hartmann G. How wellness plans grow veterinary practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015:247(1):40–1.
  164. Kustritz, MVR. Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231:1665–75.
  165. Sapierzynski R, Czopowicz M. The animal-dependent risk factors in canine osteosarcomas. Pol J Vet Sci 2017;20(2):293–8.
  166. Salas Y, Marquez A, Diaz D, et al. Epidemiological study of mammary tumors in female dogs diagnosed during the period 2002-2012: A growing animal health problem. PLoS One 2015;10(5):1–15.
  167. Greer ML. Canine Reproduction and Neonatology. CRC Press, 2014:45 290 JAAHA