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Summary of appropriate interventions


  1. Local or regional analgesia may be useful in localization of pain and short-term relief of significant DJD pain.
  2. See section concerning the use of NSAIDs in cats.
  3. The addition of other analgesic drugs will depend on patient characteristics and extent of the procedure.
  4. These interventions will be helpful pre- and post-operatively for the relief and/or prevention of post-operative and chronic pain.
  5. Ideally premedications should precede other preparations for general anesthesia such as placement of IV catheter.
  6. These are invasive procedures and should be treated as such to optimize patient care and minimize trauma/tissue damage and post-procedural pain.
  7. The level of intervention will be tailored to the invasiveness of the procedure. Deep ear cleaning will require more significant intervention than superficial cleaning in most cases.
  8. In nonemergent settings (e.g. routine pre-surgical application).
  9. Chemical restraint in lieu of manual restraint when patient fractious, distressed, or otherwise intolerant of procedure.
  10. Sterile lidocaine lubricant; caution in cases of urethral or bladder mucosal damage.

GAG = glycosaminoglycans, CKD = chronic kidney disease, DJD = degenerative joint disease.