Amantadine exerts a pain-modifying effect as an N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and remains a drug of interest for chronic pain (but not specifically for DJD) in humans.74 One study demonstrated utility as an adjunct to NSAIDs in dogs with refractory DJD, and there is one case report utilizing amantadine to treat neuropathic pain in a dog.75,76 Toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in humans and cats but not in dogs. 77,78
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