REFERENCES

  1. American Veterinary Medical Association. Everyone’s a critic: Resources for responding to negative reviews and social media. Available at: http://atwork.avma.org/2016/09/14/critic-resources-responding-negative-reviewssocial-media/. Accessed November 9, 2017.
  2. Miller JM, Astles R, Baszler T, et al. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDCconvened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel. MMWR Suppl 2012;61(1):1–102.
  3. Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, et al. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53(RR–3):136.
  4. Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance. Infection Prevention and Control Best Practices for Small Animal Veterinary Clinics. 1st ed. Guelph, Ontario: Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance; 2008. Available at: http://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/files/2008/04/CCAR-Guidelines-Final2.pdf. Accessed October 4, 2017.
  5. Guptill L. Patient management. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):277–98.
  6. Stull JW, Weese JS. Hospital-associated infections in small animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):217–33.
  7. Williams CJ, Scheftel JM, Elchos BL, et al. Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians: Veterinary Infection Control Committee 2015. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 247(11):1252–77.
  8. Harbarth S, Sax H, Gastmeier P. The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: an overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54(4):258–66.
  9. Weese JS, Stull J. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection. Can Vet J 2013; 54(1):79–82.
  10. Benedict KM, Morley PS, Van Metre DC. Characteristics of biosecurity and infection control programs at veterinary teaching hospitals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233(5):767–73.
  11. Wright JG, Jung S, Holman RC, Marano NN, et al. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232(12):1863–72.
  12. Morley PS. Biosecurity of veterinary practices. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2002;18(1):133–55.
  13. Gibbins JD, MacMahon K. Workplace safety and health for the veterinary health care team. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):409–26.
  14. Mobo BHP, Rabinowitz PM, Conti LA, et al. Occupational health of animal workers. In: Rabinowitz PM, Conti LA, eds. Human-Animal Medicine: Clinical Approaches to Zoonoses, Toxicants and Other Shared Health Risks. Maryland Heights (MD): Saunders; 2009:343–71.
  15. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Hierarchy of controls. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/hierarchy/default.html. Accessed October 4, 2017.
  16. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Veterinary safety and health: hazard prevention and infection control. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/veterinary/hazard.html. Accessed October 4, 2017.
  17. Thorne CD, Khozin S, McDiarmid MA. Using the hierarchy of control technologies to improve healthcare facility infection control: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 2004; 46(7):613–22.
  18. Portner JA, Johnson JA. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: disinfectant selection, cleaning protocols, and hand hygiene. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2010;32(5):E1–11.
  19. Portner JA, Johnson JA. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: hospital design and special considerations. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2010:32(5):E1–7.
  20. Traverse M, Aceto H. Environmental cleaning and disinfection. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):299–330.
  21. Anderson ME: Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015:45(2):343–60.
  22. Bergström A, Dimopoulou M, Eldh M. Reduction of surgical complications in dogs and cats by the use of a surgical safety checklist. Vet Surg 2016;45(5):571–6.
  23. Weese JS, Lowe T, Walker. Use of fluorescent tagging for assessment of environmental cleaning and disinfection in a veterinary hospital. Vet Rec 2012;171(9):217.
  24. Boyce JM, Pittet D; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Association for Professionals in Infection Control; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23(12 Suppl):S3–40.
  25. Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Boyce J, et al. The World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and their consensus recommendations. Infection Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30(7):611–22.
  26. Hoet AE, Johnson A, Nava-Hoet RC, et al. Environmental methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in a veterinary teaching hospital during a nonoutbreak period. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011;11(6):609–15.
  27. Murphy CP, Reid-Smith RJ, Boerlin P, et al. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario. Can Vet J 2010;51(9):963–72.
  28. Cherry B, Burns A, Johnson GS, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with veterinary clinic. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(12):2249–51.
  29. McAllister TA, Roud JA, Marshall A, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella eimsbuettel in newborn infants spread by rectal thermometers. Lancet 1986;1(8492):1262–4.
  30. Weber DJ, Anderson D, Rutala WA. The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013;26(4):338–44.
  31. Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6:130.
  32. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities. https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/pdf/guidelines/disinfection-guidelines.pdf.
  33. Dunowska M, Morley PS, Patterson G, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a peroxygen disinfectant-filled footmat for reduction of bacterial load on footwear in a large animal hospital setting. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228(12):1935–9.
  34. Stull JW, Sherding RG, O’Quin J, et al. Infectious disease in dogs in group settings: Strategies to prevent infectious diseases in dogs at dog shows, sporting events, and other canine group settings. https://vet.osu.edu/sites/vet.osu.edu/files/documents/preventive-medicine/Infectious%20Disease%20in%20Dogs%20Final.pdf.
  35. Cain CL, Mauldin EA. Clinical and histopathologic features of dorsally located furunculosis in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products: 22 cases (2005–2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 246(5):522–9.
  36. Lutz JK, Lee J. Prevalence and antimicrobial-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8(2):554–64.
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy swimming. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/. Accessed January 23, 2018.
  38. Morgan SK, Willis S, Shepherd ML. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products. PeerJ 2017;5:e3031.
  39. Lenz J, Joffe D, Kauffman MN, et al. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs. Can Vet J 2009;50(6):637–43.
  40. Leonard EK, Pearl DL, Finley RL, et al. Evaluation of pet-related management factors and the risk of Salmonella spp. carriage in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario (2005–2006). Zoonoses Public Health 2011;58(2):140–9.
  41. Canter GH, Nelson S Jr, Vanek JA, et al. Salmonella shedding in racing sled dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 1997;9(4):447–8.
  42. Weese JS, Faires M, Rousseau J, et al. Cluster of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in a small animal intensive care unit. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231(9):1361–4.
  43. Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs. Vet Surg 2015;44(1):2–8.
  44. Verwilghen D, Singh A. Fighting surgical site infections in small animals: are we getting anywhere? Vet Clin Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):243–76.
  45. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, Ch. 13. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2009. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK144036
  46. Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: A brief review of the literature and infection control implications. J Am Dent Assoc 2004; 135(4):429–37.
  47. Kellerová P, Tachezy J. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats. Int J Parasitol 2017;47(5):247–55.
  48. Rossi CC, da Silva Dias I, Muniz IM, et al. The oral microbiota of domestic cats harbors a wide variety of Staphylococcus species with zoonotic potential. Vet Microbiol 2017;201:136–40.
  49. Holmstrom SE, Bellows J, Juriga S, et al. 2013 AAHA Dental care guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013;49(2):75–82.
  50. Kaddoura I, Abu-Sittah G, Ibrahim A, et al. Burn injury: review of pathophysiology and therapeutic modalities in major burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2017;30(2): 95–102.
  51. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Links to hazardous waste programs and U.S. state environmental agencies. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/hwgenerators/links-hazardous-waste-programs-and-us-stateenvironmental-agencies.
  52. Lobo RD, Levin AS, Gomes LM. Impact of an educational program and policy changes on decreasing catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a medical intensive care unit in Brazil. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(2):83–7.
  53. Rosenthal VD, Guzman S, Pezzotto SM, et al. Effect of an infection control program using education and performance feedback on rates of intravascular device-associated bloodstream infections in intensive care units in Argentina. Am J Infect Control 2003;31(7):405–9.
  54. Rosenthal VD, Guzman S, Safdar N. Effect of education and performance feedback on rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in intensive care units in Argentina. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004; 25(1):47–50.
  55. Sherertz RJ, Ely EW, Westbrook DM, et al. Education of physicians-intraining can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):641–8.
  56. Ruis AR, Shaffer DW, Shirley DK, et al. Teaching health care workers to adopt a systems perspective for improved control and prevention of health care-associated infections. Am J Infect Control 2016;44(11):1360–4.
  57. Saint S, Greene MT, Olmsted RN, et al. Perceived strength of evidence supporting practices to prevent health care-associated infection: results from a national survey of infection prevention personnel. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(2):100–6.
  58. Aboelela SW, Stone PW, Larson EL. Effectiveness of bundled behavioural interventions to control healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review of the literature. J Hosp Infect 2007;66(2):101–8.
  59. Satish U, Streufert S. Value of a cognitive simulation in medicine: towards optimizing decision making performance of healthcare personnel. Qual Saf Health Care 2002;11(2):163–7.
  60. Stull JW, Brophy J,Weese JS. Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections. CMAJ 2015;187(10):736–43.
  61. Jones EH, Hinckley AF, Hook SA, et al. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks. Zoonoses Public Health 2018;65(1):74–9.
  62. Stull JW, Stevenson KB. Zoonotic disease risks for immunocompromised and other high-risk clients and staff: promoting safe pet ownership and contact. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):377–92.