JAAHA 56.2 Abstracts

Abstracts from issue 56.2 of JAAHA, Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.

56.2 MAR/APR 2020

Editor in Chief

Alan H. Rebar, DVM, PhD, DACVP, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Associate Editor

Linda Ross, DVM, MS, DACVIM (SAIM), Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts

Managing Editor

Karie Simpson

JAAHA, Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, is published as an official scientific and educational publication of the American Animal Hospital Association. The purpose of the journal is to publish accurate, timely scientific and technical information pertaining to the practice of small animal medicine and surgery. JAAHA is available in print and online. Log onto jaaha.org for more information. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for JAAHA, please contact jaaha@aaha.org.

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VETERINARY PRACTICE GUIDELINES

2020 AAHA Anesthesia and Monitoring Guidelines for Dogs and Cats

Tamara Grubb, Jennifer Sager, James S. Gaynor, Elizabeth Montgomery, Judith A. Parker, Heidi Shafford, Caitlin Tearney

Risk for complications and even death is inherent to anesthesia. However, the use of guidelines, checklists, and training can decrease the risk of anesthesia-related adverse events. These tools should be used not only during the time the patient is unconscious but also before and after this phase. The framework for safe anesthesia delivered as a continuum of care from home to hospital and back to home is presented in these guidelines. The critical importance of client communication and staff training have been highlighted. The role of perioperative analgesia, anxiolytics, and proper handling of fractious/fearful/aggressive patients as components of anesthetic safety are stressed. Anesthesia equipment selection and care is detailed. The objective of these guidelines is to make the anesthesia period as safe as possible for dogs and cats while providing a practical framework for delivering anesthesia care. To meet this goal, tables, algorithms, figures, and “tip” boxes with critical information are included in the manuscript and an in-depth online resource center is available at aaha.org/anesthesia.

RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES

Coxofemoral Joint Luxation in Dogs Treated with Toggle Rod Stabilization: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Review with Client Survey

C. Todd Trostel, Derek B. Fox

Coxofemoral luxation is the most common type of joint luxation observed clinically in dogs. This retrospective study determines the complications and outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation of coxofemoral luxations using a toggle rod stabilization in 58 dogs. The purpose of the study was to compare the results with previous studies to ascertain commonalities and differences. A majority of the canine luxations were stabilized using a 4.0 or 3.2 mm commercial toggle rod and either one or two strands of OrthoFiber, FiberWire, or monofilament nylon suture. Postoperative complications developed in 25 of the 58 (43%) dogs, with major complications in 9 cases (15.5%). The most common major complication was reluxation, which occurred in 6 dogs (10%). Five of the 6 cases of reluxation received monofilament suture, although there was not a statistically significant relationship between suture type and reluxation. Owner responses to a questionnaire reported good to excellent results for satisfaction with the procedure in 90% of cases. Results of the present study suggest that toggle rod stabilization remains an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral joint luxation in dogs. Read the full article

RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES

Evaluation of Jackson-Pratt Thoracostomy Drains Compared with Traditional Trocar Type and Guidewire-Inserted Thoracostomy Drains

Alec Sherman, David Holt, Kenneth Drobatz, Michael Mison

A restrospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of and complications among Jackson-Pratt (JP) drains placed as thoracostomy drains, traditional trocar type (TRO) thoracostomy drains, and guidewire (GW)-inserted thoracostomy drains that were placed in open fashion during thoracotomy. Medical records of 65 canine and feline patients who underwent thoracic surgery were evaluated. Dogs and cats who underwent thoracotomy and had a chest drain placed intraoperatively were included. Data retrieved from medical records included signalment, body weight, diagnosis, surgical approach, surgical procedure, type of thoracostomy drain, postoperative analgesia, duration of thoracostomy drain, and postoperative complications. The incidence of complications and number of medications used in pain protocols were compared among types of thoracostomy drains. JP (n = 31), TRO (n = 25), and GW (n = 9) thoracostomy drains were placed in 65 patients. Ten minor (15.3%) and four major (6.2%) complications occurred. Cases with JP thoracostomy drains were significantly less likely to have complications (2 minor, 1 major) than cases with TRO thoracostomy drains (8 minor, 3 major, P = .009). There were no differences in the number of major complications when comparing all three drains individually (P = .350). JP drains and GW drains can be considered as an alternative to traditional TRO thoracostomy drains. Read the full article

RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES

Outcome and Metastatic Behavior of Canine Sinonasal Osteosarcoma (2005–2015)

Annie Galloway, Susan Lana, Doug Thamm, Keara Boss

Sinonasal neoplasms in dogs behave locally aggressively, and metastatic disease has not been a common cause of death. The metastatic rate of sinonasal osteosarcoma (OSA) is not well characterized, and reported outcomes of these patients are variable. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome and metastatic behavior of canine sinonasal OSA. Medical records of canine patients diagnosed with sinonasal OSA via histopathology between January 2005 and December 2015 were reviewed. Patients with any form of treatment or no treatment were included. Time to local progression, time to metastasis, and overall survival data were evaluated. Variables that may impact outcome, such as tumor stage and treatment type, were evaluated. Twenty-seven dogs were identified that fit the inclusion criteria. Overall, 30.0% of dogs developed metastasis over the disease course, with a median time to metastasis of 458 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 318–758 days). The median time to local progression was 335 days (95% CI 264–544 days). The overall median survival time was 410 days (95% CI 341–627 days). Regarding metastasis, sinonasal OSA behaves similarly to sinonasal neoplasms of other histologies and dissimilarly to appendicular OSA. The outcome of treated patients appears similar to that of sinonasal tumor patients with other histologies. Read the full article

RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES

Diagnostic Values of Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Findings in Presumptive Trigeminal Neuropathy: 49 Dogs

Clément Musso, Kevin Le Boedec, Eymeric Gomes, Laurent Cauzinille

The goal of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the different etiologies of trigeminal neuropathy based on clinical and MRI findings and to evaluate the significance of associated concomitant disorders. MRI studies of 49 dogs with trigeminal neuropathy were blindly reviewed and were classified into the following three groups: neoplasia, neuritis, or idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy (ITN). Thirty-one percent were suspected to have neoplasia (all unilateral), 16% to have neuritis (1 bilateral and 7 unilateral), and 53% to have ITN (4 unilateral and 22 bilateral). Dogs with clinical bilateral trigeminal dysfunction were most likely to have a diagnosis of ITN (predicted probability 95.7%). Unilateral clinical signs were significantly associated with neoplasia or neuritis compared with ITN (P < .001 and P = .002, respectively). Even with marked brainstem neoplastic involvement, central neurological deficits may be absent. Sensory impairment was significantly associated with either neoplasia or neuritis compared with ITN (P = .007 and P = .03, respectively). Ipsilateral noninfectious middle ear effusion was only seen in dogs with neoplasia (33%). Horner’s syndrome was present in 12% of all dogs (2 dogs in each group). Dogs with neoplasia were significantly older than dogs with neuritis (P = .02) and ITN (P = .002). Read the full article

CASE SERIES

Single-Port Laparoscopic Treatment and Outcome of Dogs with Ovarian Remnant Syndrome: 13 Cases (2010–2018)

Aaron Percival, Ameet Singh, Cathy Gartley, Ingrid Balsa, J. Brad Case, Philipp D. Mayhew, Michelle Oblak, Brigitte A. Brisson, Jeffrey J. Runge, Alexander Valverde, R. Alex zur Linden, Matthieu Gatineau

Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is a condition resulting from incomplete removal of ovarian tissue during ovariectomy and/or ovariohysterectomy. Single-port laparoscopy (SPL) is an alternative to ventral midline laparotomy for treatment of ORS. Medical records of 13 client-owned female dogs who underwent SPL for the treatment of ORS were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate surgical technique and outcome. Dogs who had undergone a previous attempt at open ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy were included. Major intraoperative complications did not occur and conversion to open laparotomy was not required. In 1 dog, an SPL + 1 technique was used, in which an additional port was placed cranial to the single-port device to aid in dissection and tissue manipulation. Median surgical time was 45 min (range, 30–90 min). Clinical signs related to estrus had resolved in 11 of 13 dogs with a median follow-up time of 18 mo. Two of 13 dogs were lost to follow-up at 3 mo postoperatively; however, signs of estrus had resolved at time of last follow-up. SPL treatment for ORS was feasible and successful in this cohort of dogs. Reduced surgical time was found in this study compared with previous reports investigating multiple-port laparoscopic treatment of ORS. Read the full article

CASE SERIES

Primary Hemangiosarcoma of the Falciform Fat in Seven Dogs (2007–2015)

Susan Esther Mendez, Sarah E. Sykes Crumplar, Amy C. Durham

Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a malignant neoplasm of vascular endothelial or bone marrow progenitor cell origin, most often affects the spleen, heart, and liver and typically has an aggressive biologic behavior. Canine HSA arising from the falciform fat/ligament represents a rare anatomic variant, with only two reports in the veterinary literature. In this study, we describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of seven dogs with primary HSA of the falciform ligament. Histologic grade and mitotic score were not significantly associated with outcome. All dogs had the primary tumor surgically excised except for one diagnosed at necropsy. Median overall survival for all dogs diagnosed prior to necropsy was 339 days, and the 1 yr survival rate was 50%. Four dogs were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and had a significantly longer median overall survival (394 versus 83 days) than those that did not (P = .018). Dogs with HSA of the falciform ligament may have improved 1 yr survival rates and longer median survival time compared with dogs with HSA in more common visceral locations. Read the full article

CASE REPORTS

Distemper Encephalomyelitis Presenting with Lower Motor Neuron Signs in a Young Dog

Lauren Green, Laurie Cook, Margaret Martinez, Eric Green

A 4 mo old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for focal lower motor neuron signs of the right forelimb and marked hyperesthesia on axillary palpation. Her signs progressed rapidly over the following days to diffuse lower motor neuron signs in all limbs and a seizure. MRI demonstrated a focal, slightly right-sided, 2.5 cm region of noncontrast-enhancing T2 hyperintensity and T1 isointensity at C4–C5 spinal cord segments. Imaging of the brain was unremarkable. The dog was euthanized as a result of poor prognosis. Polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid and immunohistochemistry of brain tissue were both positive for canine distemper virus. This report documents an atypical presentation of canine distemper encephalomyelitis causing lower motor neuron signs and hyperesthesia. Read the full article

CASE REPORTS

Erythema Multiforme Major in a Dog Treated with Intravenous Human Immunoglobulin and Immunosuppressive Therapy

Sara J. Ramos, Victoria M. Beale, Ingeborg M. Langohr, Michelle C. Woodward

An ~12 yr old castrated mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 7 wk progressive history of intermittent hyporexia, lethargy, and erosive dermatitis. Initial examination revealed disseminated papules and macules coalescing to irregularly shaped and serpiginous plaques with widespread erosion progressing to ulceration. Skin histopathology revealed transepidermal keratinocyte apoptosis with lymphocyte satellitosis and lymphocytic and histiocytic interface infiltrate. Histopathology combined with clinical signs and history were compatible with the diagnosis of erythema multiforme major. Treatment was initiated with multidrug immunosuppression. Following 36 hr with no improvement, intravenous human immunoglobulin (0.45 mg/kg IV) was administered, resulting in notable improvement in the dog’s attitude and appetite within 2 hr and the dog’s skin lesions within 48 hr. Following discharge, the dog improved daily with near complete resolution of dermatologic disease achieved 1 mo postdischarge. All immunosuppressive medications were ultimately discontinued 5 mo following presentation. This is the first report of a dog with erythema multiforme major that has been successfully treated with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin and immunosuppression. Read the full article

CASE REPORTS

Symptomatic Narcolepsy/Cataplexy in a Dog with Brainstem Meningoencephalitis of Unknown Origin

Lorenzo Mari, Anita Shea

A 4 yr old intact female cocker spaniel was presented for investigation of acute, progressive lethargy/hypersomnia; vestibular signs; and cataplexy. A narcolepsy-cataplexy episode with associated hypertension and bradycardia was triggered during examination. There was no evidence of arrhythmia on electrocardiography during the episode. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thoracic and abdominal imaging were unremarkable. MRI of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were compatible with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin affecting the mesencephalon, pons, and rostral medulla oblongata. The dog was started on immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and cytosine arabinoside, which was subsequently switched to cyclosporine. Narcolepsy-cataplexy episodes could initially still be triggered by offering food; however, they gradually became shorter and less frequent until they completely subsided along with all other clinical signs after 3 wk. No relapse occurred over a 32 mo follow-up period from the diagnosis. Repeated MRI revealed marked reduction in the lesion size; cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no abnormalities. Although very rare, symptomatic narcolepsy/cataplexy can occur in dogs and can be secondary to brainstem encephalitis. Cardiovascular changes can occur in association with narcolepsy/cataplexy and should be considered when dealing with patients presenting with these specific clinical signs. Read the full article

CASE REPORTS

Myxosarcoma Associated with the Kidney in a Cat: Case Report

Brittany Champagne Madere, Andrea Dedeaux, Tatiane Terumi Negrao Watanabe, Nobuko Wakamatsu, Lorrie Gaschen, Roger Bennett, Dorian Lara, Bonnie Boudreaux

A 12 yr old spayed female domestic shorthair with a history of lethargy, anorexia, and a pendulous abdomen was referred after a cranial abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. Thoracic radiographs and an abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass associated with the kidney and moderate hemoperitoneum. Exploratory laparotomy revealed abdominal hemorrhage originating from a right renal mass that was adhered to the caudal vena cava. Following a right nephrectomy, histopathology diagnosed the mass as a perirenal/renal myxosarcoma. Based upon thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound, the patient remains disease free at 14 mo postoperatively. Read the full article

CASE REPORTS

Addison’s Disease Secondary to Bilateral Adrenal Gland Metastatic Mammary Carcinoma in a Dog

Virginia Merino-Gutierrez, Luis Feo-Bernabé, Francisco Clemente-Vicario, Jordi Puig

A 12 yr old intact female Siberian husky was referred with a 2 wk history of progressive weakness, paraparesis, anorexia, and panting. A 4 cm diameter grade 3 mammary solid carcinoma involving the fifth right mammary gland had been removed 2 days prior to the current visit. While hospitalized, the dog was diagnosed with Addison’s disease based on electrolyte disturbances and low serum cortisol levels following adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. An abdominal ultrasound revealed adrenal glands at the upper limit of normal size. Despite treatment, the dog deteriorated and died 4 days after presentation. A postmortem examination revealed a neoplastic infiltrate of epithelial malignant cells in both adrenal glands, popliteal lymph nodes, vertebral bodies, and paralumbar musculature, compatible with metastasis from mammary carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Addison’s disease secondary to metastatic mammary carcinoma in a dog. Read the full article

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