All references used in the creation of the 2022 AAHA Pain Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats.

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  34. Feeney LC, Lin CF, Marcellin-Little DJ, et al. Validation of twodimensional kinematic analysis of walk and sit-to-stand motions in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:277–82.
  35. Bosscher G, Tomas A, Roe SC, et al. Repeatability and accuracy testing of a weight distribution platform and comparison to a pressure sensitive walkway to assess static weight distribution. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2017;30:160–164.
  36. Lascelles BD, Roe SC, Smith E, et al. Evaluation of a pressure walkway system for measurement of vertical limb forces in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:277–282.
  37. Eskander BS, Barbar M, Evans RB, et al. Translation of activity monitoring in normal dogs toward distance traveled. In: Veterinary Orthopedic Society; 2017; Salt Lake City, UT.
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  39. Gruen ME, Alfaro-Cordoba M, Thomson AE, et al. The use of functional data analysis to evaluate activity in a spontaneous model of degenerative joint disease associated pain in cats. PLoS One 2017;12: e0169576.
  40. Woods HJ, Li MF, Patel UA, et al. A functional linear modeling approach to sleep-wake cycles in dogs. Sci Rep 2020;10:22233.
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  44. Pak DJ, Yong RJ, Kaye AD, et al. Chronification of pain: mechanisms, current understanding, and clinical implications. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2018;22:9.
  45. Xu J, Brennan TJ. Guarding pain and spontaneous activity of nociceptors after skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision. Anesthesiology 2010;112:153–64.
  46. Adrian D, Papich M, Baynes R, et al. Chronic maladaptive pain in cats: a review of current and future drug treatment options. Vet J 2017;230: 52–61.
  47. Wright B, Kronen PW, Lascelles D, et al. Ice therapy: cool, current and complicated. J Small Anim Pract 2020;61:267–71.
  48. Lemke KA, Creighton CM. Analgesia for anesthetized patients. Top Companion Anim Med 2010;25:70–82.
  49. Dyson DH. Perioperative pain management in veterinary patients. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008;38:1309–27, vii.
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  51. Grubb T, Lobprise H. Local and regional anaesthesia in dogs and cats: overview of concepts and drugs (Part 1). Vet Med Sci 2020;6:209–17.
  52. Enomoto M, Lascelles BD, Gerard MP. Defining the local nerve blocks for feline distal thoracic limb surgery: a cadaveric study. J Feline Med Surg 2016;18:838–45.
  53. Enomoto M, Lascelles BD, Gerard MP. Defining local nerve blocks for feline distal pelvic limb surgery: a cadaveric study. J Feline Med Surg 2017:19:1215–1223.
  54. Lascelles BD, McFarland JM, Swann H. Guidelines for safe and effective use of NSAIDs in dogs. Vet Ther 2005;6:237–51.
  55. Kukanich B, Bidgood T, Knesl O. Clinical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2012;39:69–90.
  56. Berry SH. Analgesia in the perioperative period. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45:1013–27.
  57. Tan M, Law LS, Gan TJ. Optimizing pain management to facilitate Enhanced Recovery After Surgery pathways. Can J Anaesth 2015;62: 203–18.
  58. Hartrick CT, Pestano C, Carlson N, et al. Capsaicin instillation for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebocontrolled, multicentre trial. Clin Drug Investig 2011;31:877–82.
  59. Kennedy KC, Martinez SA, Martinez SE, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing and signs of pain in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. Am J Vet Res 2018;79:893–904.
  60. Zidan N, Fenn J, Griffith E, et al. The effect of electromagnetic fields on post-operative pain and locomotor recovery in dogs with acute, severe thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion: a randomized placebocontrolled, prospective clinical trial. J Neurotrauma 2018;35:1726–36.
  61. Norling LV, Serhan CN. Profiling in resolving inflammatory exudates identifies novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators and signals for termination. J Intern Med 2010;268:15–24.
  62. Gruen ME, Thomson AE, Griffith EH, et al. A feline-specific anti-nerve growth factor antibody improves mobility in cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain: a pilot proof of concept study. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:1138–48.
  63. Gruen ME, Meyers JAE, Lascelles BDX. efficacy and safety of an antinerve growth factor antibody (frunevetmab) for the treatment of degenerative joint disease-associated chronic pain in cats: a multi-site pilot field study. Front Vet Sci 2021;8:610028.
  64. Lascelles BD, DePuy V, Thomson A, et al. Evaluation of a therapeutic diet for feline degenerative joint disease. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:487–95.
  65. Roush JK, Cross AR, Renberg WC, et al. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:67–73.
  66. Henriksen M, Hansen JB, Klokker L, et al. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis: a metaanalysis of trials included in Cochrane systematic reviews. J Comp Eff Res 2016;5:417–31.
  67. Da Silva Santos R, Galdino G. Endogenous systems involved in exercise-induced analgesia. J Physiol Pharmacol 2018;69:3–13.
  68. Greene LM, Marcellin-Little DJ, Lascelles BD. Associations among exercise duration, lameness severity, and hip joint range of motion in Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242: 1528–33.
  69. Chew DJ, Buffington CA, Kendall MS, et al. Amitriptyline treatment for severe recurrent idiopathic cystitis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1282–6.
  70. Monteiro BP, Klinck MP, Moreau M, et al. Analgesic efficacy of an oral transmucosal spray formulation of meloxicam alone or in combination with tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Vet Anaesth Analg 2016;43:643–51.
  71. Monteiro BP, Klinck MP, Moreau M, et al. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. PLoS One 2017;12: e0175565.
  72. Vandeweerd JM, Coisnon C, Clegg P, et al. Systematic review of efficacy of nutraceuticals to alleviate clinical signs of osteoarthritis. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26:448–56.
  73. Watanabe R, Marcoux J, Evangelista MC, et al. The analgesic effects of buprenorphine (Vetergesic or Simbadol) in cats undergoing dental extractions: a randomized, blinded, clinical trial. PLoS One 2020;15: e0230079.
  74. Watanabe R, Monteiro BP, Evangelista MC, et al. The analgesic effects of buprenorphine (Vetergesic or Simbadol) in combination with carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a randomized, blinded, clinical trial. BMC Vet Res 2018;14:304.
  75. Steagall PV, Ruel HLM, Yasuda T, et al. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous, intramuscular or subcutaneous buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a randomized, prospective, masked, clinical trial. BMC Vet Res 2020;16:154.
  76. Burgess JW, Villablanca JR. Ontogenesis of morphine-induced behavior in the cat. Brain Res 2007;1134:53–61.
  77. Posner LP, Pavuk AA, Rokshar JL, et al. Effects of opioids and anesthetic drugs on body temperature in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010;37: 35–43.
  78. Heit MC, Stallons LJ, Seewald W, et al. Safety evaluation of the interchangeable use of robenacoxib in commercially-available tablets and solution for injection in cats. BMC Vet Res 2020;16:355.
  79. Friton G, Thompson CM, Karadzovska D, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral robenacoxib (tablet) for the treatment of pain associated with soft tissue surgery in client-owned dogs. BMC Vet Res 2017;13:197.
  80. Friton G, Thompson C, Karadzovska D, et al. Efficacy and safety of injectable robenacoxib for the treatment of pain associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs. J Vet InternMed 2017;31:832–41.
  81. Enomoto M, Lascelles BDX, Gerard MP. Defining local nerve blocks for feline distal pelvic limb surgery: a cadaveric study. J Feline Med Surg 2017;19:1215–23.
  82. Lascelles BD, Rausch-Derra LC, Wofford JA, et al. Pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical field study to evaluate the effectiveness of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension for the provision of postsurgical analgesia in dogs undergoing stifle surgery. BMC Vet Res 2016; 12:168.
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  85. Snyder LB, Snyder CJ, Hetzel S. Effects of buprenorphine added to bupivacaine infraorbital nerve blocks on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration using a model for acute dental/oral surgical pain in dogs. J Vet Dent 2016;33:90–6.
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  90. Kim YK, Lee SS, Suh EH, et al. Sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine reduces early postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Vet J 2012;191:188–92.
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