AAHA offices are closed due to a special staff function from 1-5pm MDT on June 24. We will resume regular business hours on Monday, June 27.


General principles of immunization

  1. Abdelmagid OY, Larson L, Payne L, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges. Vet Ther 2004;5(3):173–86.
  2. Chastant-Maillard S, Freyburger L, Marcheteau E, et al. Timing of the intestinal barrier closure in puppies. Reprod Domest Anim 2012;47(suppl 6):190–3.
  3. Davis-Wurzler GM. 2013 Update on current vaccination strategies in puppies and kittens. Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44(2):235–63.
  4. Day MJ, Schultz RD. Vaccination. In: Veterinary Immunology: Principles and Practice. Boca Raton (FL): Taylor and Francis; 2014:224.
  5. Day MJ, Horzinek MC, Schultz RD, et al. Guidelines for the Vaccination of Dogs and Cats. World Small Animal Veterinary Association, Vaccine Guidelines Group. J Sm Anim Pract 2016;57:E1–E45.
  6. Ford RB. Companion animal vaccines. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Vol. 1. 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2010:853.
  7. Ford RB. Canine vaccination guidelines: Key points for veterinary practice. Today’s Veterinary Practice 2012;2:20–6.
  8. Gill M, Srinivas J, Morozov I, et al. Three-year duration of immunity for canine distemper, adenovirus, and parvovirus after vaccination with a multivalent canine vaccine. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2004;2(4):227–34.
  9. Greene CE, Schultz RD. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2006;1069–119.
  10. Larson LJ, Schultz RD. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine. Vet Ther 2007;8(4):305–10.
  11. Larson LJ, Newbury S, Schultz RD. Canine and feline vaccinations and immunology. In: Miller L, Hurley KF, eds. Infectious Disease Management in Animal Shelters. Ames (IA): Wiley-Blackwell; 2009;61–82.
  12. Mouzin DE, Lorenzen MJ, Haworth JD, et al. Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224(1):55–60.
  13. Renshaw RW, Zylich NC, Laverack MA, et al. Pneumovirus in dogs with acute respiratory disease. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16(6):993–5.
  14. Roth JA. Mechanistic bases for adverse vaccine reactions and vaccine failures. In: Schultz RD, ed. Advances in Veterinary Medicine 41: Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics. San Diego (CA): Academic Press; 1999:681–700.
  15. Ruch-Gallie R, Moroff S, Lappin MR. Adenovirus 2, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Parainfluenza Molecular Diagnostic Assay Results in Puppies After vaccination with Modified Live Vaccines. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30(1):164–6.
  16. Schultz RD. Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review. Vet Microbiol 2006;117(1):75–9.
  17. Schultz RD, Thiel B, Mukhtar E, et al. Age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol 2010;142(suppl 1):S102–8.
  18. Spickler AR, Roth JA. Adjuvants in veterinary vaccines: Modes of action and adverse effects. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17(3):273–81.
  19. Tizard I. Vaccines and their production. In: Veterinary immunology. 9th ed. St Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2013:258–70.
  20. Tizard I. The use of vaccines. In: Veterinary immunology. 9th ed. St Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2013:272–82.


Canine distemper virus

  1. Jensen WA, Totten JS, Lappin MR, et al. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs. J Vet Diag Invest 2015;27(5):576–80.
  2. Larson L, Schultz RD. Effect of vaccination with rCDV vaccine immediately before exposure under shelter-like conditions. Vet Ther 2006;7(2):113–8.
  3. Larson LJ, Schultz RD. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus vaccine. Vet Ther 2007;8(2):101–6.
  4. Pardo MC, Bauman JE, Mackowiak M. Protection of dogs against canine distemper by vaccination with a canarypox virus recombinant expressing canine distemper virus fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins. Am J Vet Res 1997;58(8):833–6.
  5. Pardo MC, Tanner P, Bauman J, et al. Immunization of puppies in the presence of maternally derived antibodies against canine distemper virus. J Comp Pathol 2007;137(suppl 1):S72–5.
  6. Perrone D, Bender S, Niewiesk S. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) - Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs. Can J Vet Res 2010;74(3):214–7.

Canine parvovirus

  1. Decaro N, Crescenzo G, Desario C, et al. Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination. Vaccine 2014;32:3850–3.
  2. Hernández-Blanco B, Catala-López F. Are licensed canine parvovirus (CPV2 and CPV2b) vaccines able to elicit protection against CPV2c subtype in puppies?: A systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Vet Microbiol 2015 22;180(1-2):1–9.
  3. Larson LJ, Schultz RD. Do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c variant? Vet Ther 2008;9(2):94–101.
  4. Miranda C, Thompson G. Canine parvovirus in vaccinated dogs: a field study. Vet Rec 2016;178(16):397.
  5. Pratelli A, Cavalli A, Martella V, et al. Canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses in pups after inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b modified live virus vaccine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8(3):612–5.
  6. Ridel M, Truyen U, Reese S, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs. Vet Rec 2015;177:597.
  7. Spibey N, Greenwood NM, Sutton D, et al. Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus. Vet Microbiol 2008;128(1-2):48–55.
  8. Wilson S, Illambas J, Siedek E, et al. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c. Vaccine 2014;32:5421–4.

Canine adenovirus (canine infectious hepatitis)

  1. Greene CE. Infectious canine hepatitis and canine acidophil cell hepatitis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2012:42–8.


  1. Brown CM, Slavinski S, Ettestad P, et al. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2016. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248(5):505–17.
  2. Frana TS, Clough NE, Gatewood DM, et al. Postmarketing surveillance of rabies vaccines for dogs to evaluate safety and efficacy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232(7):1000–2.
  3. Monroe BP, Yager P, Blanton J, et al. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2014. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:777–88.
  4. Moore MC, Davis RD, Kang Q, et al. Comparison of anamnestic responses to rabies vaccination in dogs and cats with current and out-of-date vaccination status. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:205–11.
  5. Murray KO, Holmes KC, Hanlon CA. Rabies in vaccinated dogs and cats in the United States, 1997–2001. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:691–5.


  1. Andre-Fontaine G. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results. Vet Rec 2013;172(19):502.
  2. Gautam R, Wu CC, Guptill LF, et al. Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States 2000-2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237(3):293__8.
  3. Goldstein R. Canine leptospirosis. Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40(6): 1091–101.
  4. Ghneim GS, Viers JH, Chomel BB, et al. Use of a case-control study and geographic information systems to determine environmental and demographic risk factors for canine leptospirosis. Vet Res 2007;38(1):37–50.
  5. Klaasen HL, van der Veen M, Sutton D, et al. A new tetravalent canine leptospirosis vaccine provides at least 12 months immunity against infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2014;158:26–9.
  6. Langston CE, Heuter KJ. Leptospirosis: a re-emerging zoonotic disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003;33(4):791–807.
  7. Lee HS, Levine M, Guptill-Yoran C, et al. Regional and temporal variations of Leptospira seropositivity in dogs in the United States, 2000-2010. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28(3):779–88.
  8. Midence JN, Leutenegger CM, Chandler AM, et al. Effects of recent Leptospira vaccination on whole blood real-time PCR testing in healthy client-owned dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26(1):149–52.
  9. Moore GE. Leptospirosis: preventing a complex and elusive disease. Vet Rec 2013;172(7):179–80.
  10. Raghaven RK, Brenner KM, Higgins JJ, et al. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic and urban land use risk factors of canine leptospirosis: 94 cases (2002-2009). Prev Vet Med 2012;106(3-4):324–31.
  11. Raghaven RK, Brenner KM, Higgins JJ, et al. Evaluations of hydrologic risk factors for canine leptospirosis:94 cases (2002-2009). Prev Vet Med 2012;107(1-2):105–9.
  12. Sykes JE, Hartman K, Lunn KF, et al. 2010 ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Leptospirosis: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25(1):1–13.
  13. Wilson S, Stirling C, Thomas A. A new multivalent (DHPPi/L4R) canine combination vaccine prevents infection, shedding and clinical signs following experimental challenge with four Leptospira serovars. Vaccine 2013;31(31):3131–4.

Borrelia burgdorferi (canine lyme disease)

  1. Conlon JA, Mather TN, Tanner P, et al. Efficacy of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A, recombinant vaccine in dogs after challenge by ticks naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Vet Ther 2000;1(2):96–107.
  2. Ford RB, Eschner A. Canine Lyme disease: how real the threat? Today’s Veterinary Practice 2014;4(3):70–4.
  3. Goldstein RE. Lyme disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Vol. 1. 7th ed. St Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2010:868.
  4. Leschnik MW, Kirtz G, Khanakah G, et al. Humoral immune response in dogs naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and in dogs after immunization with a Borrelia vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2010;17(5):828–35.
  5. Littman MP, Goldstein RE, Labato MA, et al. ACVIM consensus statement on Lyme disease in dogs: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(2):422–34.
  6. O'Connor TP, Esty KJ, Hanscom JL, et al. Dogs vaccinated with common Lyme disease vaccines do not respond to IR6, the conserved immunodominant region of the VlsE surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004;11(3):458–62.
  7. Rhodes DV, Earnhardt CG, Mather TN, et al. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC genotypes in canine tissue following tick infestation; implications for Lyme disease vaccine and diagnostic assay design. Vet J 2013;198(2):412–8.
  8. Töpfer KH, Straubinger RK. Characterization of the humoral immune response in dogs after vaccination against the Lyme borreliosis agent: A study with five commercial vaccines using two different vaccination schedules. Vaccine 2007;25(2):314–26.

Agents associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD)

  1. Anderson TC, Crawford PC, Dubovi EJ, et al. Prevalence of and exposure factors for seropositivity to H3N8 canine influenza virus in dogs with influenza-like illness in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242(2):209–16.
  2. Castleman, WL, Powe JR, Crawford PC, et al. Canine H3N8 influenza virus infection in dogs and mice. Vet Path 2010;47(3):507–17.
  3. Davis R, Jayappa H, Abdelmagid OY, et al. Comparison of the mucosal immune response in dogs vaccinated with either an intranasal avirulent live culture or a subcutaneous antigen extract vaccine of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet Ther 2007;8(1):32–40.
  4. Deshpande MS, Jirjis FF, Tubbs AL, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine in dogs following experimental challenge. Vet Ther 2009;10(3):103–12.
  5. Edinboro CH, Ward MP, Glickman LT. A placebo-controlled trial of two intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter. Prev Vet Med 2004;62(2):89–99.
  6. Ellis JA, Krakowka GS. A review of canine parainfluenza virus infection in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240(3):273–84.
  7. Ellis J, Rhodes C, Lacoste S, et al. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs. Can Vet J 2014;55(9):857–64.
  8. Ellis JA. How well do vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? A critical review of the literature 1977-2014. Vet J 2015;204(1):5–16.
  9. Ellis JA, Gow SP, Waldner CL, et al. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs. Vet J 2016;212:71–7.
  10. Erles K, Brownlie J. Canine respiratory coronavirus: an emerging pathogen in the canine infectious respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008;38(4):815–25.
  11. Ford RB. Bordetella bronchiseptica: beyond "kennel cough." In: Bonagura J, Twedt DC, eds. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIV. St. Louis: Saunders-Elsevier; 2009:647–650.
  12. Gore T, Headley M, Laris R, et al. Intranasal kennel cough vaccine protecting dogs from experimental Bordetella bronchiseptica challenge within 72 hours. Vet Rec 2005;156(15):482–3.
  13. Hess T, Parker D, Hassal A, et al. Evaluation of efficacy of oral administration of Bordetella bronchiseptica intranasal vaccine when used to protect puppies from tracheobronchitis due to Bordetella bronchiseptica infection. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2011;9(3):300–5.
  14. Jacobs AA, Theelen RP, Jaspers R, et al. Protection of dogs for 13 months against Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus with a modified live vaccine. Vet Rec 2005;157(1):19–23.
  15. Jacobs AA, Bergman JG, Theelen RP, et al. Compatibility of a bivalent modified-live vaccine against Bordetella bronchiseptica and CPiV, and a trivalent modified-live vaccine against CPV, CDV and CAV-2. Vet Rec 2007;160(2):41–5.
  16. Larson LJ, Henningson J, Sharp P, et al. Efficacy of the canine influenza virus H3N8 vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after co-challenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2011;18(4):559–64.
  17. Larson L, Thiel BE, Sharp P, et al. A comparative study of protective immunity provided by oral, intranasal and parenteral canine Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2013;11(3):153–60.
  18. Lehar C, Jayappa H, Erskine J, et al. Demonstration of 1-year duration of immunity for attenuated Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in dogs. Vet Ther 2008;9(4):257–62.
  19. Newbury S, Godhardt-Cooper J, Poulsen KP. Prolonged intermittent virus shedding during an outbreak of canine influenza A H3N2 virus infection in dogs in three Chicago area shelters: 16 cases (March to May 2015). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248(9):1022–6.
  20. Payungporn S, Crawford PC, Kouo TS, et al. Influenza A virus (H3N8) in dogs with respiratory disease, Florida. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14(6):902–8.
  21. Squires RA. How well do vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? VetJ 2015;204(3):237–8.

Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake vaccine)

  1. Wallis DM, Wallis JL. Rattlesnake vaccine to prevent envenomation toxicity in dogs. Presented at the Dr Ross O. Mosier 77th Annual Western Veterinary Conference. Las Vegas, February 20–24, 2005.
  2. Cates CC, Valore EV, Couto MA, et al. Comparison of the protective effect of a commercially available western diamondback rattlesnake toxoid vaccine for dogs against envenomation of mice with western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus), and southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) venom. Am J Vet Res 2015;76(3):272–9.

Canine enteric coronavirus

  1. Greene CE, Decaro N. Canine viral enteritis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2012:67–80.

Vaccine adverse events (adverse reactions)

  1. Berkelman RL. Human illness associated with the use of veterinary vaccines. Clin Inf Disease 2003;37(3):407–14.
  2. Cruz-Tapias P, Agmon-Levin N, Israeli E, et al. Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)--animal models as a proof of concept. Curr Med Chem 2013;20(32):4030–6.
  3. Elias MA, Duarte A, Nunes T, et al. Influence of chemotherapy for lymphoma in canine parvovirus DNA distribution of specific humoral immunity. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;37(5-6):313–20.
  4. Esposito S, Prada E, Mastrolia MV, et al. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA): clues and pitfalls in the pediatric background. Immunol Res 2014;60(2-3):366–75.
  5. Fedor ME, Rubinstein A. Effects of long-term low dose corticosteroid therapy on humoral immunity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;97(1):113–6.
  6. Ford RB. Vaccine adverse events: Acute allergic angioedema. Today’s Veterinary Practice 2013;3(1):53–5.
  7. Frana TS, Elsken LA, Karli SA. Summary of adverse event reports for veterinary biologic products received by the USDA from 1999 through 2005. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229(7):1100–2.
  8. Furst DE. Serum Immunoglobulins and risk of infection. How low can you go? Semin Arthritis Rheum 2009;39(1):18–29.
  9. Gisel JJ, Brumble LM, Johnson MM. Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a kidney–pancreas transplant patient after exposure to recently vaccinated dogs. Transpl Infect Dis 2010;12(1):73–6.
  10. Lack G, Ochs HD, Gelfand EW. Humoral immunity in steroid-dependent children with asthma and hypogammaglobulinemia. J Pediatrics 1996;129(6):898–903.
  11. Hogenesch H, Azcona-Olivera J, Scott-Moncrieff C, et al. Vaccine-induced autoimmunity in the dog. Adv Vet Med 1999;41:733–47.
  12. Huang AA, Moore GE, Scott-Moncrieff JC. Idiopathic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and recent vaccination in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26(1):142–8.
  13. Moore GE, Ward MP, Kulldorff M, et al. A space-tie cluster of adverse events associated with canine rabies vaccine. Vaccine 2005;23(48-49):5557–62.
  14. Moore GE, Guptill LF, Ward MP, et al. Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227(7):1102–8.
  15. Moore GE. Vaccine Associated Adverse Events in Dogs. Current Vet Therapy XV. St. Louis: Elsevier-Saunders; 2014: 1249–52.
  16. Moore GE, HogenEsch H. Adverse vaccinal events in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40(3):393–407.
  17. Morris DO. Ischemic dermatopathies. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2013;43(1):99–111.
  18. Toshach K, Jackson MW, Dubielzig RR. Hepatocellular necrosis associated with the subcutaneous injection of an intranasal Bordetella bronchiseptica-canine parainfluenza vaccine. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997; 33(2): 126.
  19. Nichols PR, Morris DO, Beale KM. A retrospective study of canine and feline cutaneous vasculitis. Vet Dermatol 2001;12(5):255–64.
  20. Scott-Moncrieff JC, Azcona-Olivera J, Glickman NW, et al. Evaluation of antithyroglobulin antibodies after routine vaccination in pet and research dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221(4):515–21.
  21. Scott-Moncrieff JC, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, et al. Lack of association between repeated vaccination and thyroiditis in laboratory Beagles. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(4):818–21.
  22. Berkelman RL. Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37(3):407–14.
  23. Vadalà M, Poddighe D, Laurino C, et al. Severe Side Effects of Vaccines in the Veterinary Setting. Mathews Journal of Veterinary Science 2017;1(1):1-7.
  24. Valli JL. Suspected adverse reactions to vaccination in Canadian dogs and cats. Can Vet J 2015;56(10):1090–2.
  25. Walter CU, Biller BJ, Lana SE, et al. Effects of chemotherapy on immune responses in dogs with cancer. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(2):342–7.
  26. Yao PJ, Stephenson N, Foley JE, et al. Incidence rates and risk factors for owner-reported adverse events following vaccination of dogs that did and did not receive Leptospira vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247(10):1139–45.
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination Recommendation and Guidelines of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/general-recs/index.htmlAccessed 8/3/2017.

Measurement of antibody related to vaccination

  1. Bohm M, Thompson H, Weir A, et al. Serum antibody titers to canine parvovirus, adenovirus and distemper virus in dogs in the UK which had not been vaccinated for at least three years. Vet Rec 2004;154(15):457–63.
  2. Coyne MJ. Seroconversion of puppies to canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus: a comparison of two combination vaccines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000;36(2):137–42.
  3. Glover S, Anderson C, Piontkowski M, et al. Canine parvovirus (CPV) Type 2b vaccine protects puppies with maternal antibodies to CPV when challenged with virulent CPV-2c virus. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2012;10(3):217–24.
  4. Gray LK, Crawford PC, Levy JK, et al. Comparison of two assays for detection of antibodies against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus in dogs admitted to a Florida animal shelter. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240(9):1084–7.
  5. Larson LJ, Hageny TL, Haase CJ, et al. Effect of recombinant canine distemper vaccine on antibody titers in previously vaccinated dogs. Vet Ther 2006;7(2):107–12.
  6. Moore SM, Hanlon CA. Rabies-specific antibodies: measuring surrogates of protection against a fatal disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010;4(3):e595.
  7. Mouzin DE, Lorenzen MJ, Haworth JD, et al. Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224(1):55–60.
  8. Schultz RD, Ford RB, Olsen J, et al. Titer testing and vaccination: a new look at traditional practices. Vet Med 2002;97:1–13.
  9. Tizard I, Ni Y. Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213(1):54–60.

Therapeutic biologics

Canine oral melanoma

  1. Grosenbaugh DA, Leard AT, Bergman PJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of a xenogeneic DNA vaccine encoding for human tyrosinase as adjunctive treatment for oral malignant melanoma in dogs following surgical excision of the primary tumor. Am J Vet Res 2011;72(12):1631–8.
  2. Ottnod JM, Smedley RC, Walshaw R, et al. A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of Oncept vaccine for the adjunct treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma. Vet Comp Oncology 2013;11(3):219–29.

Canine osteoarthritis

  1. Gingerich DA. Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator (LTCI): Review of the immunopharmacology a new veterinary biologic. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2008;6(2):61–8.

Canine atopic dermatitis

  1. Michels GM, Ramsey DS, Walsh KF, et al. A blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose controlled trial of lokivetmab (ZTS-00103289), a canonized, anti-canine IL-31 monoclonal antibody in client owned dogs with atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatology 2016;27(6):478–e129.
These guidelines are supported by a generous educational grant from
Boehringer Ingelheim USA Inc., Merck Animal Health, and Zoetis.