1. American Veterinary Medical Association. Everyone’s a critic: Resources for responding to negative reviews and social media. Available at: Accessed November 9, 2017.
  2. Miller JM, Astles R, Baszler T, et al. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDCconvened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel. MMWR Suppl 2012;61(1):1–102.
  3. Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, et al. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53(RR–3):136.
  4. Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance. Infection Prevention and Control Best Practices for Small Animal Veterinary Clinics. 1st ed. Guelph, Ontario: Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance; 2008. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2017.
  5. Guptill L. Patient management. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):277–98.
  6. Stull JW, Weese JS. Hospital-associated infections in small animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):217–33.
  7. Williams CJ, Scheftel JM, Elchos BL, et al. Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians: Veterinary Infection Control Committee 2015. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 247(11):1252–77.
  8. Harbarth S, Sax H, Gastmeier P. The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: an overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54(4):258–66.
  9. Weese JS, Stull J. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection. Can Vet J 2013; 54(1):79–82.
  10. Benedict KM, Morley PS, Van Metre DC. Characteristics of biosecurity and infection control programs at veterinary teaching hospitals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233(5):767–73.
  11. Wright JG, Jung S, Holman RC, Marano NN, et al. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232(12):1863–72.
  12. Morley PS. Biosecurity of veterinary practices. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2002;18(1):133–55.
  13. Gibbins JD, MacMahon K. Workplace safety and health for the veterinary health care team. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):409–26.
  14. Mobo BHP, Rabinowitz PM, Conti LA, et al. Occupational health of animal workers. In: Rabinowitz PM, Conti LA, eds. Human-Animal Medicine: Clinical Approaches to Zoonoses, Toxicants and Other Shared Health Risks. Maryland Heights (MD): Saunders; 2009:343–71.
  15. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Hierarchy of controls. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2017.
  16. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Veterinary safety and health: hazard prevention and infection control. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2017.
  17. Thorne CD, Khozin S, McDiarmid MA. Using the hierarchy of control technologies to improve healthcare facility infection control: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 2004; 46(7):613–22.
  18. Portner JA, Johnson JA. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: disinfectant selection, cleaning protocols, and hand hygiene. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2010;32(5):E1–11.
  19. Portner JA, Johnson JA. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: hospital design and special considerations. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2010:32(5):E1–7.
  20. Traverse M, Aceto H. Environmental cleaning and disinfection. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):299–330.
  21. Anderson ME: Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015:45(2):343–60.
  22. Bergström A, Dimopoulou M, Eldh M. Reduction of surgical complications in dogs and cats by the use of a surgical safety checklist. Vet Surg 2016;45(5):571–6.
  23. Weese JS, Lowe T, Walker. Use of fluorescent tagging for assessment of environmental cleaning and disinfection in a veterinary hospital. Vet Rec 2012;171(9):217.
  24. Boyce JM, Pittet D; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Association for Professionals in Infection Control; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23(12 Suppl):S3–40.
  25. Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Boyce J, et al. The World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and their consensus recommendations. Infection Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30(7):611–22.
  26. Hoet AE, Johnson A, Nava-Hoet RC, et al. Environmental methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in a veterinary teaching hospital during a nonoutbreak period. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011;11(6):609–15.
  27. Murphy CP, Reid-Smith RJ, Boerlin P, et al. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario. Can Vet J 2010;51(9):963–72.
  28. Cherry B, Burns A, Johnson GS, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with veterinary clinic. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(12):2249–51.
  29. McAllister TA, Roud JA, Marshall A, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella eimsbuettel in newborn infants spread by rectal thermometers. Lancet 1986;1(8492):1262–4.
  30. Weber DJ, Anderson D, Rutala WA. The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013;26(4):338–44.
  31. Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6:130.
  32. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities.
  33. Dunowska M, Morley PS, Patterson G, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a peroxygen disinfectant-filled footmat for reduction of bacterial load on footwear in a large animal hospital setting. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228(12):1935–9.
  34. Stull JW, Sherding RG, O’Quin J, et al. Infectious disease in dogs in group settings: Strategies to prevent infectious diseases in dogs at dog shows, sporting events, and other canine group settings.
  35. Cain CL, Mauldin EA. Clinical and histopathologic features of dorsally located furunculosis in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products: 22 cases (2005–2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 246(5):522–9.
  36. Lutz JK, Lee J. Prevalence and antimicrobial-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8(2):554–64.
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy swimming. Available at: Accessed January 23, 2018.
  38. Morgan SK, Willis S, Shepherd ML. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products. PeerJ 2017;5:e3031.
  39. Lenz J, Joffe D, Kauffman MN, et al. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs. Can Vet J 2009;50(6):637–43.
  40. Leonard EK, Pearl DL, Finley RL, et al. Evaluation of pet-related management factors and the risk of Salmonella spp. carriage in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario (2005–2006). Zoonoses Public Health 2011;58(2):140–9.
  41. Canter GH, Nelson S Jr, Vanek JA, et al. Salmonella shedding in racing sled dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 1997;9(4):447–8.
  42. Weese JS, Faires M, Rousseau J, et al. Cluster of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in a small animal intensive care unit. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231(9):1361–4.
  43. Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs. Vet Surg 2015;44(1):2–8.
  44. Verwilghen D, Singh A. Fighting surgical site infections in small animals: are we getting anywhere? Vet Clin Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):243–76.
  45. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, Ch. 13. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2009. Available from:
  46. Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: A brief review of the literature and infection control implications. J Am Dent Assoc 2004; 135(4):429–37.
  47. Kellerová P, Tachezy J. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats. Int J Parasitol 2017;47(5):247–55.
  48. Rossi CC, da Silva Dias I, Muniz IM, et al. The oral microbiota of domestic cats harbors a wide variety of Staphylococcus species with zoonotic potential. Vet Microbiol 2017;201:136–40.
  49. Holmstrom SE, Bellows J, Juriga S, et al. 2013 AAHA Dental care guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013;49(2):75–82.
  50. Kaddoura I, Abu-Sittah G, Ibrahim A, et al. Burn injury: review of pathophysiology and therapeutic modalities in major burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2017;30(2): 95–102.
  51. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Links to hazardous waste programs and U.S. state environmental agencies. Available at:
  52. Lobo RD, Levin AS, Gomes LM. Impact of an educational program and policy changes on decreasing catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a medical intensive care unit in Brazil. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(2):83–7.
  53. Rosenthal VD, Guzman S, Pezzotto SM, et al. Effect of an infection control program using education and performance feedback on rates of intravascular device-associated bloodstream infections in intensive care units in Argentina. Am J Infect Control 2003;31(7):405–9.
  54. Rosenthal VD, Guzman S, Safdar N. Effect of education and performance feedback on rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in intensive care units in Argentina. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004; 25(1):47–50.
  55. Sherertz RJ, Ely EW, Westbrook DM, et al. Education of physicians-intraining can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):641–8.
  56. Ruis AR, Shaffer DW, Shirley DK, et al. Teaching health care workers to adopt a systems perspective for improved control and prevention of health care-associated infections. Am J Infect Control 2016;44(11):1360–4.
  57. Saint S, Greene MT, Olmsted RN, et al. Perceived strength of evidence supporting practices to prevent health care-associated infection: results from a national survey of infection prevention personnel. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(2):100–6.
  58. Aboelela SW, Stone PW, Larson EL. Effectiveness of bundled behavioural interventions to control healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review of the literature. J Hosp Infect 2007;66(2):101–8.
  59. Satish U, Streufert S. Value of a cognitive simulation in medicine: towards optimizing decision making performance of healthcare personnel. Qual Saf Health Care 2002;11(2):163–7.
  60. Stull JW, Brophy J,Weese JS. Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections. CMAJ 2015;187(10):736–43.
  61. Jones EH, Hinckley AF, Hook SA, et al. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks. Zoonoses Public Health 2018;65(1):74–9.
  62. Stull JW, Stevenson KB. Zoonotic disease risks for immunocompromised and other high-risk clients and staff: promoting safe pet ownership and contact. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45(2):377–92.
These guidelines are supported by a generous educational grant from Virox Animal Health™.