Ketamine

Ketamine exerts a pain-modifying effect via its N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist actions. Subanesthetic ketamine constant rate infusion (CRI) in humans prevents pain and has antihyperalgesic, and antiallodynic effects.36,37Studies appear to support a similar clinical effect in dogs, although ketamine’s analgesic effect has not yet been studied in a feline surgical model.38–40 The International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management has adopted a position that the pain-modifying effects and safety profile of subanesthetic doses of ketamine warrant its use as part of a multimodal approach to transoperative pain management, especially in patients with risk factors that may predispose them to either exaggerated or maladaptive pain states

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